Hypertension, one of the leading causes of cardiovascular problems, originates from combined social, environmental, and genetic determinants. In epidemiological studies, definitive evidence has been provided that high BP in all people, irrespective of age and sex, has a strong association with the risk of nonfatal and fatal stroke, heart failure, ischemic heart issues, and non-cardiac vascular diseases as well. Across the world, there has been an increase in the prevalence of hypertension, with 31% of people suffering from it, i.e., approximately 1.4 billion adults (Carey & Muntner, 2018). The control and prevention of hypertension can be attained through the population and/or targeted-based plans such as community health, social, lifestyle, and team-based care and intervention.
The paper talks about hypertension, health promotion measures included in the prevention and care of hypertension, and the impact of health promotion strategies. Also, the learning gained from the assignment has been discussed in the paper.
Hypertension-or enhanced blood pressure- is a critical medical condition that considerably enhances the issues of kidney, brain, heart, and other serious diseases. It has been found that around 1.28 billion people between the ages of 30 and 79 across the globe have hypertension, with two-thirds of them residing in middle- and low-income countries. As reported (WHO, 2021), approximately 46% of adults are unaware that they are suffering from this condition. The disease originates from combined social, environmental, and genetic determinants. The control and prevention of hypertension can be attained through the population and/or targeted-based plans.
1. Lifestyle Factors: the genetic predisposition to hypertension is not changeable and carries a lifelong risk of CVD, but the risk for hypertension is modifiable and preventable mainly because of a strong influence of important lifestyle/environmental factors. These factors include an unhealthy diet, weight gain resulting in obesity or overweight, alcohol consumption, lesser physical activity, insufficient potassium, and higher sodium intake. The highest impact can be attained by targeting the highest deficiency lifestyle areas. Two or more lifestyle modification factors should be combined because singly BP reductions are normally additive (Carey & Muntner, 2018).
2. Social Factors: The other risk factors for hypertension are health's social determinants. As mentioned by (Carey & Muntner 2018), "the circumstances in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, and the systems put in place to deal with illness" are defined as the health's social determinants. For instance, hypertension is closely linked to these social determinants in the US. The disease is more common in Blacks than Whites, which increases the chances of end-stage kidney problems and stroke in them.
3. Community Health Factors: Community Health Workers (CHWs) have been proven as a strategy to aid enhanced control of hypertension. CHWs are defined as "community members who work almost exclusively in community settings and serve as connectors between healthcare consumers and providers to promote health among groups that have traditionally lacked access to care" (Fleming & Koh, 2010, p. 162). In 9 out of 10 studies, positive behavioral changes have been reported by the intervention of CHWs in supporting people with hypertension. CHWs are vital in linking distinguished communities to the health care system (Lu & Tang, 2015).
4. Team-based Care and Intervention: A multidisciplinary team is incorporated in team-based care, which is concentrated on the patient, to maximize the quality of hypertension care and involves the primary care clinician, patient, and other professionals like social workers, dieticians, physician assistants, pharmacists, nurses, and CHWs. These professionals complement the primary care clinician by generating process support and sharing the hypertension care's responsibilities (Carey & Muntner, 2018).
Implementing health promotion strategies helps bring positive health changes in patients with hypertension. For instance, as stated by (Carey & Muntner, 2018), a meta-analysis and systematic review of hundred randomized trials indicate that care provided by a team, including medication pretreatment by either physicians or non-physicians, proves highly effective in comparison to other strategies implemented for BP control in patients with hypertension. Also, positive behavioral changes in 9 out of 10 studies have been reported by the intervention of CHWs in supporting people with hypertension.
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I have learned that hypertension disease originates from combined social, environmental, and genetic determinants. The control and prevention of hypertension can be attained through the population and/or targeted-based plans such as community health, social, lifestyle, and team-based care and intervention. In the future, I will implement these intervention and care strategies while dealing with patients with hypertension.